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instrument’s application procedure, it is possible to infer where will the recuperated resources be invested, for instance the

recuperation of territory. In other cases, given that the resources go to larger accounts or the general budget, it is not possible

to follow their route until they are reinvested. However, it is very difficult, in general to find references to the investment of the

recuperated resources. Emerges from this statement the necessity of an additional field investigation of documental of

bibliographic sources that allow continuation to the recuperated resources, to evaluate to what extent the application of an

instrument of capital gain collection is really an instrument in favor of equity. Measuring the redistribution of urban income

requires specific methodological instruments, different from those oriented towards the measurement of capital gains, and it

requires besides a special identification effort; for example, in which moment are redistributed, whom and how the benefits

are received. The last item is important, since in many cases the recuperation via works in high income sectors is reinvested

in the very same territory, producing a regressive phenomenon.

In regards to methodology, the option of generating a participative process was taken, where the coordinating city (Lleida =

Lerida, Spain) ran the collective production

8

. This has reflected into a permanent dialog between the project group that

allowed the interchange of ideas and experiences. Besides, it has compromised the partner cities in a simultaneous process

of production and reception of information. Require special mentioning the Participatory Studios, where were examined all

the reception of documentation and the topic analysis by the local agents, a key aspect for the evaluation of the feasibility of

the proposals and the applicability of the learning processes.

In synthesis, it was important for the success of the project to keep present the following methodological aspects:

• A process of collective production, and permanent dialog, between the partners and the experts.

• A simultaneous process of production and reception of information, and the “testing” by the local actors.

• A local detailed analysis of the very same and description always with a more general horizon than the local.

The project has been developed the following way: initially, the participants of the partner cities realized a preliminary

identification of instruments in their cities or of national coverage. Later, the project’s international consultants formulated

observations, emphasizing in first place that the diversity of instruments and contexts required the establishment of a

common language in order to establish an operative definition that could allow them to advance. These definitions should

allow classifying how the instruments recuperate and redistribute revenues.

A second observation has referred to the special attention that should be paid to the redistribution. Afterwards the expert

team was asked to realize a report that analyzed good practices, or successful or suitable experiences in the application of

instruments of collection and redistribution of urban revenue. All was subjected to discussion with all group members,

especially in two work meetings. The first in Lleida-Spain (September 2003) and the second at CEPAL, Santiago de Chile

(May 2004). As a result of the discussion at these meetings and of the common work, a working index was elaborated,

structuring the book in general ways, based on the local diagnosis, the good practices and instruments, the conclusions of

the partner’s work meetings, and the local Participatory Studios, realized in each partner city. 

1.3 Latin america and southern europe. Common and differential aspects

I. The shared characteristics:

Among the common factors, although not equal, in both continents are: the role of the State; its decentralization and degrees

of stability of the political context; the market; the society and the globalization processes in the territory transformations; the

influence of the legislation related to the right of property, besides of the land registry information, the systems of evaluation,

valuation and collection.

The role of the State. The stability of the political context can grant solidity and continuity in the application of actions oriented

towards the collection or recuperation of capital gains. But it is precisely, the lack of political stability, of the party system and

the changes of orientation in regards to real estate policy (including those in the same party) that reflect in changes or the

abandoning of applied instruments and, that weaken the legitimacy of the actions decreasing their credibility. The trust of the

owners in the system’s fragility, that finally works in their favor, has been a conduct that translates itself in the lack of payment,

in negotiations or other actions oriented to postpone payments in wait for a change. For example, in England after World War

II, the attempts to develop the real estate intervention by the public failed because the change between conservative and

51

I

NSTRUMENTOS DE

R

EDISTRIBUCIÓN DE LA

R

ENTA

U

RBANA

8

The activities of the project are: preliminary reports, first local Participatory Studios, consolidation document of the preliminary reports, first work reunion,

second local Participatory Studios, elaboration of local diagnostics, elaboration of an identification document, analysis and systematization of competent

instruments and/or good practices in Latin America and the European Union that promote an equitative urban development through the urban income

redistribution, second work reunion, third local Participatory Studios, final project document.

 



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