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2. Instrument description by blocks

In this chapter we initially approach the conceptual and methodological reflections, that fundament an analytical and operative

description, facilitating the further conceptual definition of the instrument blocks, whose detail is developed in the appendixes,

by means of each one of the specific tables.

2.1 Methodological and conceptual reflections

2.1.1 The concepts of revenue and capital gains

A conceptual difference must be established between revenue and capital gains. Generically, revenue identifies any income

received by a production factor for its participation in the productive process, any income generation has implicit the

increment of goods and services, in other words the GDP. In exchange, the capital gains belong to the group of speculative

income, that is, those revenues that are noticed by part of the holders of goods without the increase of the GDP, the number

of goods or services existent in the market.

The speculative incomes or capital gains are proper of the secondary markets that include the interchange relationships

between goods that have been previously an object of sale and purchase. Anyways, the cities not only are spaces where

these secondary markets are manifested, but also of generation of speculative incomes resultant of the productive effort of

the entire city, not just of the owner of the object property of this revalorization.

The processes of urban and territorial transformation, their planning, urbanization and edification normally imply the

generation of revenues and/or urban capital gains. We must warn that there are few cases of decrease. The external costs,

or costs and benefits that the market does not evaluate or assigns without previous participation of the beneficiary, in the

phase of investment, are consubstantial in the urban scope.

The increment of the land value has different causes, but generally it is a combination of two or more of them, according to

Vicent Renard (2003) (5):  

• The general evolution, includes both that of the economy and in particular that of the revenues, as well as that of the

urbanization. In this case it is difficult to separate a specific cause of the increment. 

• The execution of infrastructure and/or facility generally due to public investment. In this case the cause of the increment

of the value can be in some way clearly identified.

• Changes in the urbanistic or normative regulation applied to a lot, through the modification or new qualification of the zone,

where it is also feasible to separate the cause of the increment.

Also, there are many other processes that create what we call differential revenues. Just like, for example, the transformation

of the space due to the modification of activities and social relations, by the city users; New luxury or leisure activities, with new

tertiary services; The establishment of the informal/illegal commerce sector; The positive processes in function of resolved

conflicts ( Manifestations, delinquency, attacks, wars, for example ), etc. Besides of the mentioned causes in the third point of

V. Renard, such as the appearance or confirmation of technical information that can modify the characteristics of a place, or

the lack of a detailed technical information for the perception of their physical conditions, for example the increment of the

vulnerability to determined urban environmental risks (Earthquakes, landslides, floods, etc.) as differential revenues.

But let us add up other causes, beyond government investments, in all its levels. The private real estate promotions with

urbanistic investments, although are reflected in the final promotion client, generate capital gains. These derive from these

investments allow the land owner to totally appropriate the value increment. 

We want to stress that the very same processes of urbanization are an active source of urban revenue generation. And these

same urbanization processes can be directed, created or channeled from the local government instances. Therefore there

are general causes of “mobilization” or “generation” of revenue and capital gains that always have to be worked, as one of

the base activities of the local government.

In the anterior chapters it is evident the difficulty to separate the only motive that provokes the increase, the weight and the

interrelation of the causes that have intervened. This will reflect in the difficulties that present the design and the operation of

instruments of urban income recuperation, specially in relation to the valorization of increments and to the individualization of

the payments that the different owners must make according to Fernanda Furtado, 2000 (6)

56

Proyecto Común de URB-AL



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