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However, this type of instruments faces important operation difficulties. Amongst them the valorizations, the areas of

influence, the types of charging and payments, the long payment periods. The former difficulties have implicated an

application that is fragile and difficult to sustain time wise.

Like we said before besides the fiscal way, there are other paths of management, including those of planning and participatory

democracy and others, that allow the city’s inhabitants and users, to practice their citizenship rights. From the basic

comprehension of the city, its shape, its model, its future, until its total participation. We are talking therefore about knowledge

revenue, that offer to everyone more opportunities of being active in this common space that city represents (the urban

settlement, village, or the metropolis), in other words that it more opportunities of equality exist to all.

But we will also talk about various formulas of recuperation of part of the costs and/or the revenue by means of urbanistic

management, as a formula of reversion and/or redistribution of the revenue and/or capital gains in favor of the community.

2.2 General considerations about the blocks of instruments

 

Let us describe some of these existing instruments that allow affirming that the local government has bases to advance in

the proposed theme. Let us proceed then to the description of the instruments by blocks, as a result of their classification

and definition based on the workgroup debates.

– The law and its local arrangement.

– The Urban Planning types.

– The local general and urban fiscal aspects.

– The Instruments of economical order.

– The instruments of urban management.

– The Instruments of Urbanization and land property.

– The instruments of democratization and of social participation.

– Habitat and regularization of lands and the appreciation of the area.

2.2.1 The law and its local arrangement

It is evident that the legislative system –from the constitutional level until the laws and ordinances that regulate private property

and the administrations– is the base element of the subject, despite the inexistence of a standard or a common legal platform.

Not even between the two continents (Europe and Latin America), neither between the very own countries of each one of the

continents. It is difficult for a book of an operative, non scientific character, to begin to define these legal platforms, the

coincidental points and their great differences, but the most common aspects are mentioned in order to clarify the basics. 

The urbanization process always supports itself, due to its own nature, on the rights of property and/or land possession and

on the legal conditions that determine that all or part of the values it generates, (should) be private or public. For that reason

the urban revenue, by means of investment, and/or generated capital gains, due to the urbanization go to the hands of

different agents. The laws are the framework of the rules of the game for this equation, defining the concrete profiles in each

nation or including at more regional and/or local levels –in function of the state organization scheme– the kinds of urban

property possession, and the conditions of management of the urbanization processes. These later aspects are of local basis,

because they are located in the concrete places where the cities, the towns and the other types of human settlements are

established.

The essential element is that the legal system must recognize and define the “social function” of the property, in other words,

the limits and duties towards the society that the individual property has. There is a very wide spectrum, from the constitutions

and their respective laws in the European countries where the urbanism has evident social roots; until the other extreme,

some of the Latin American constitutions that define the almost untouchable concept of this private property.

In this wide void the essential element must be signaled, which is that the urbanization processes, including those of sub

urbanization of the land, the transformation of rustic lands into urban ones, generate value increments that are not only the

result of the investment of their owners. Including those cases in which the urbanization is managed by private parties, by

means of important processes of urbanistic and/or real estate investment, there are services of networks and other elements

of city formation that are of public base. There is always a portion of the land value increment generated by the collective urban

group. There are always some revenues or some capital gains that should be reverted into the social factors. For that reason

the social function of the property can and must be defined in relation to these limitations and “cargas” (charges), how they are

denominated in the Spanish urbanistic legislation. Property limitations and urbanistic “cargas” (charges), as collective

obligations of the individual, defined by the plan, as a local law, because the urbanization is always located in a concrete place.

58

Proyecto Común de URB-AL



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