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Besides the limitations, the charges or costs of the urbanization process must also be reverted. The most common kinds of

reversion, in the form of charges, are the payment of the urbanization costs, including that of the exterior connection to the

public service networks, the concession of lands destined to public and/or communal elements, essentially the street

network, green zones and facilities. In some legislation, they are also included in the charges the cession of part of the use,

that constitutes a portion of land suitable to be urbanized whose sale or use, as base element of real estate promotion, results

in urban revenue. This scheme, in great part referred to the Spanish land legislation, defines the desirable framework. That

the urbanization processes can offer financial advantages to the property or private land possession, but with limitations and

collective base charges; that allow part of the urban revenue to be recuperated by the community and that could be

reinvested in the same surroundings or in more needy ones. In this last case, the reversion process will be much more

important from the social point of view.

But it is positive as well to confirm that the diverse Latin American legislations also advance in this direction. As more recent

examples are the management processes of some cities in Brazil (Claudia De Cesare, 1999) (8) as well as the “Estatuto de

Ciudad” (Law No.- 10.257 of the year 2001) and the recent Colombian Legislation must also be mentioned (Carolina Barco

de Botero and Martin Smolka, 2000). (9) 

In the first mentioned case, the definition of the property’s social function must be regulated in the concrete contents of the

“Plan Regulador”. In other words, it is the plan that determines how to apply the limitations and duties that will operate upon

the private land property and upon other types of land possession. Starting from this planning instrument, obligatory in

municipalities of more than 20,000 inhabitants, formulas of urban management of the costs and income collection that will

allow reversion processes are determined. The instruments mentioned on tables 04 (Operaciones urbanas consorciadas y

ligadas), 05 (Transferencia del derecho de construir) y 07 (Concesión onerosa del derecho de construir) constitute the

concrete formulas for this instrumentation. Later, there are possibilities of going even beyond the generalized situation of

revenue and capital gain collection by private parties. Besides its evident social content, the purpose of the project, this legal

base instrumentation is very pertinent. While centering in the local plan it can better adjust to the local conditions, to the

level and the place of collection or management of these incomes. This example from Brazil opens many operative

possibilities to states, nations and regions, but also to cities, so that at local or municipal level, ordinances, normative or

legal base instruments could be written in order to define the rules of this property’s social function as a direct and basic

local resource.

There are examples incorporated to the tables of Appendix A1 in which legal, fiscal or other types of legal instruments are

described, in order to intervene in the direction of the collection of capital gains and or urban revenue. In the European

continent the legal systematization is more vertical, from the constitutions to national level laws; it passes through the

territorial, regional and/or local levels. There is a clearer hierarchy of these definitions that guide or limit the local autonomy.

On the other hand in the American continent, a less hierarchical situation in the legislative theme of the property’s social

function exists and there are more possibilities that local, regional or territorial activities could flourish. Possibilities that could

be articulated from the plan, like the concrete and very positive example of Brazil’s “Estatuto da Cidade”. That could allow

bettering locating the formation of revenue, urban capital gains and; consequently, how to charge, limit or direct their reversion

their processes to the city zones where they are mostly needed.

In conclusion, the situation of apparent hierarchy weakness of the Latin American legal instruments, in relation to the

European situation, must be converted into in a source of inspiration for fairer intervention formulas. Advancing the property

statute towards a citizenship statute formula, with all the limitations, duties, charges and taxes, in the concrete cases.

Pertinent elements to diverse situations starting from the diverse conditions of the cities, of the human settlements as well as

within their different situations. In other words, to think the laws of urbanization and territorial ordination from an adjustment

to concrete local and territorial conditions perspective, so that the concepts of equalitarian property justice and its social

function could be, adjusted to the diverse conditions of the world.

2.2.2 Urban planning types

The urban developing, regulating or urbanistic, are also instruments, of formation and reversion of the urban incomes, in this

of work. Because they generate, since their redaction, the formation of land values, a base element in the process of city

urbanization. Both within the urban position revenue and within the differential ones (those that discriminate and differentiate

between the different parts of each city).

They also allow their redistribution the less technocratic and transparent they are, in other words, the more comprehensibly

they show (to the citizens) the lines of development and urban evolutions: the spaces, the strategies, the processes and the

concrete places of urbanization. That is by itself a source of redistribution, for it opens to many the possibility of intervening

in this urbanization process, source of income and urban capital gains. Against this model, there are the plans negotiated in










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