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La escuela constituye, actualmente, un referente crucial en los procesos de aprendizaje y desarrollo individual, cumpliendo, así mismo

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Elementos interesantes de experiencias desarrolladas

4. Possibilities of the corrective and preventive intervention

4. 1. Corrective intervention

The school cannot play the social " fire-brigade " here (impudently 1993, P. 59.) and force problems " educationally " solve, which as totalsocial general context comes along. One makes more difficult this also by the erosion of political authority, which enters as well also the school as national institution. Korte shows that the school order measures can affect themselves after 90 SchG rather to the disadvantage of the damage or the school, because a findiger pupil can (punish to)Massnahmen frequently enough to out-lever. A formal defect been sufficient and an aggression the following consequence is delayed or removed. This may be surely right security that pupil inside favorable, which however this can contrary-concern educational learning effect. A cleverer pupil can successfully succeed, while the damage and the school must take over additional work. A damage must worry often about the fact that its damage is replaced. The school can hardly help it here.

It shows up also here that the school constantly new functions close up. The same effect does not have the pluralitaet of parental educating conceptions, a basic agreement between parents' house and school is natural and must only in intensive discussions be manufactured. The fact that this is not always easy particularly in our topic shows the St. Floriansprinzip nevertheless that basically force is condemned, but the own child is all too excluded. Here a possible sanctioning reaction, which was vehement required formerly, is rejected now as too hard. Korte (1993, S. 77f) sees herein a " shyness at sanctions as reflex of social tendencies ". Because " the power of the teacher is veruebelt, because it only parodiert real power, admired wird."(Adorno the 1979, P. 75). Hierein plays the fear of the teacher, as " authoritarianly " of applying (NL 1, S. 42ff.). Nevertheless and must the school can oppose " the force: by force, but did not decide and with the ability, alternatives to point out " (wanting Ems 199á, P. 26.) Way looking and ignoring does not recover problems, calmed at the most the unpleasant feeling to be nevertheless helpless and ohnmaechtig. An oversize of formal-legal administrative regulations can carry the feeling of resignation here. From therefore it only the principle of the " compensation " can apply, not that to the revenge or deterrence. This could set a vicious circle in course, punishment frustration and force escalate would let (viz. Spreiter 1993, S. 62.). Instead the door from the force spiral must be found by a Deeskalation, as force-alternative behavior is promoted and as success will experience can. Even one children must be granted that they implement rather spontaneous and intrumentelle aggression forms due to their entwicklungsstufe as destructive-violent. A " positive core ", which is worth a deciphering, can be assumed by therefore it. From therefore it a discussion (Miller 1985)" is worthwhile itself ", in which sensitivity comes for the action behind the force to the printout. In the partial perspective change itself educational-therapeutic understanding can (viz. Scarbath 1992, S.103ff.) initiate, with renouncement of moralisierendes, cramped condemning. Core of the corrective intervention appears to me apart from the principle of the compensation the thought that " force are not worthwhile themselves " may, a success, which is however constituted, may not not adjust. Neither increase of the attention from teacher or pupil page, still material improvement. Also to the force victim justice must happen. Sander (1991, S.14ff.) requires here a clear regulation, which contains clear consequences, which are however also actually executed for aggressors, and as early, short, inconspicuous a sanctioning as possible. So an escalation can be avoided (viz. appendix: Measure against the force).


4. 2. Preventive intervention of the school

It seems substantial to be me that the school recovers the Inititiative again. For pupil inside it is fatal, if they experience the school as " weak " institution, successfully in which violent ones can become generally accepted, and on the other hand to experience to have that (burned out) teacher inside by verbal asymmetries escalating it behaves, creative impulses of child/young people destructively to abblocken or by arbitrariness-suspicious note decisions discipline.

To accompany thereby a new understanding of school, a paradigmatischer change must, like it Osswald (1990, S. 14ff.) requires. In terms of catchwords are to be called here:

Parents work joint responsibility promote, opening of the school for associations, which in-carry village and quarter public, i.e. cooperative communication with the school " external world ", lives into the school, open learning forms (Wallrabenstein 1993, S. 135f.) discovering learning, projects, free work etc., learning to learn and ganzheitliches, creative learning with heading, heart and hand in the center to place. Creative and friedvolle conflict resolution processes deeskalieren voltages and obtain the feeling increasing Sozial-und individual authority (Singer 1993/2; Bugdal 1995; Walker 1995), environmental experience enable, activating movement and plays, relaxation and self experience permit (Teml 1990/2). For cases of problem the possibility of non-standard or social promotion should be intensified (Nolting 1992/9; Peter man/Peter man 1991/2; Peter man/Peter man 1993/6.). Here directed the self value feeling can be stabilized, can more accurate self and foreign perception develop and leave force-alternative conflict adjustment mechanisms to train itself.

To teacher inside it applies then that beyond pure knowledge transfer can and must. The deceit picture " ideal, good teachers " must be reformuliert realistic kommunikativ. Under these conditions it is possible that force can be deciphered and the sense structures of childlike-juvenile aggression and force of the aspect of educational delimitation will experience to be able, in order to be able to avoid the situation of constant excessive demand. This changes the problem solution strategies (Singer 1993/3, S. 101ff, S. 122ff.) " successful teacher " in the direction of more security of occurring, consequence, then they can offer neutral intervention a " good model " for non-aggressive behavior (sander 1991, S. 13f), by them the revival of the educational discussion with KollegInnen, also with parents and pupil inside to develop. At the same time the development of the transparent increase in output considered, as rules, space, rituals for children are created, those in a common consent, an educational school climate to base. For teacher inside a development of the educational-psychological consultation and supervision (squat 1995) is indispensable as psychohygienische base. Because with the administrative routine, the curriculum obligations and the education-unfavorable social situation occupation discontent (burnout) around itself and leads often also to force-escalating behaviors of instructors, e.g. to " violent language a that teacher inside " (Staudt 1994.), then from the pupil perspective the " Gegengewalt"(Bade accesses 1994.) and Vandalismus (emperor 1993.) evoke.

Not to be forgotten the sex specific aspect of the " force in the school " may. Here it applies, the relations ability of the boys to strengthen (emperors 1993; Walker 1995, S. 13f, S. 113ff.), in order to contribute on a long-term basis to the force reduction.

A force-poor school culture however builds rather on liberty, tolerance, understanding and cooperative conflict handling, because on egoisms, competition, consumer greed and exercise of power. A force-free school would be a good school, in creativity, experiences with (more skillfully) aggression, successful communication and inter+generational dialog in leisure, play and cognitive discovering is therefore connected (viz. Preuschoff / Preuschoff 1993/2). Likewise the needs from pupil inside and teacher inside would find consideration, to be able and with their creative powers and interests bring in themselves to find when whole subjects in the school rootedness to be able to be i.e. subjects. (doc.12)


Attention particularly earns the experiment of J. R. Davitz (the effect of of the preceding training (habit) on the behavior after frustrations, 1952) in this connection, by whom that children show such behaviors after a frustration, in whom it was occupied beforehand - independently of frustrations - well had been trained: to aggressive behavior trained children reacted predominantly aggressively, to constructional-cooperative behavior trained reacted predominantly constructionally. [ 4 ]

To hold it is also that aggressive back-up actions increase the grind rather, and it to only diminish can if the Reintegration into the value horizon of the society successfully, which is re-created by constructional concerning internal equilibrium (the IdentitaetsbaIance) and an action perspective is seen, which lets the ill-making I loss and moral expiry in the aggressive Aufwallung unnecessary appear avoidable and.

For education and self-instruction the aspect of constructional situation accomplishment the crucial is undoubted. (doc. 14)

Aspectos necesarios a considerar para el desarrollo de acciones preventivas y de gestión del conflicto

Peace education is called to use itself for the implementation of democracy Start of page The capability to the participation in democratic decision-making processes and the creation of possibilities of the with and self-determination are important constituents of the Freidenserziehung. The function to establish democratic conditions makes clear thereby that with peace education not only or the group peace meant war peace problems with regard to foreign policy and also not only the internal peace it is but that for a permanent peace fair and democratic social structures are a prerequisite. Democracy means government by the people. It concerns thus with and self-determination possibilities from humans in all areas of life, which concern it, and not only around the casting of votes on the selection days. The creation of new participation possibilities and the ability and the will to the sharing at decisions as prerequisites of democratization are limited thereby not to the large policy, but begin with small's group processes and are enough over local and regional committees into the national area.

Partyness as necessity for a critical peace education Start of page

Peace education may be obligated not an unpolitical value neutrality, but must be parteiisch is thereby did not only mean parteiisch that the socio-political point of view of a peace education must be clearly assignable, but also that peace education by its practice position refers. Peace education does not report worth-neutrally essentially on armament, underdevelopment, violations of human rights. It places itself rather on the page of the underprivileged persons, discriminated against ones, Entrechteten. It takes position against force and threatening politics, against withholding democratic fundamental rights. It is Parteigaengerin of humans, who are affected by the unequal distribution of social and economic life chances in and between nations. Parteiisch its is called also to call the causes and causers of underdevelopment and force with the name to identify the beneficiaries and the wrong-basic of these processes. That may not be misunderstood now as in offence against the " overwhelming prohibition " in the political education work, as a call to surprise and influence in the sense of on one side before-calm desired opinions learning. Peace education does not get along however without the " view from down ". The view from down learn is called,

  • to learn to see also with the eyes of those, from which fundamental human rights will withhold;

  • as humans rationally and emotional to revolt itself against threatening and force politics, against exploitation, suppression, against the destruction of the bases of life;

  • to be received the venture to call causes and causers with the name;

  • to detect and to this challenge place themselves the own contribution to the threats of the peace.

By their expose themselves all those, which feel obligated such an peace education, to attacks and meeting with hostility. Handling these attacks is an important, often difficult learning process. (doc. 5)


Pedagogic conflicts and from it resulting endangering for children and teenagers refers on the inner-reality of that firstly Families, therefore the parents-child-relationships themselves as well as the effects of the groups and milieus into thm/her/it she/it is embedded, secondly on that Relationship of the adolescent to other pedagogic facilities and to the extracurricular life-areas of the children and Teenager and finally thirdly on the consequences of the respective life-forms, pedagogic convictions and methods for them/her/it Individuation and a reflexive social integration of the adolescent. With it becomes in this section - necessarily simplifying- merely the problembehafteten, endangering potentials of such movements, groups and milieus for children and teenagers sketch. (doc. 10)


Conflicts can beside it between scholastic requests and expectations as well as the way of life and the belief-principles of that Appears family (for example participation in school-parties and -fahrten, Lehrinhalte and belief-ideas of the family etc), from which serious School-conflicts for adolescents can result. The more is however surely for the concrete shaping of these conflict-potentials or less rigoristische stand the respective family crucial.

Partially, also difficulties occur for the junction into continuing school-careers and corresponding Ausbildungs – and Occupation-careers until to the withholding of the school attendance and from graduations. The realization of a central becomes with it Prerequisite for autonomous and independent adult lifestyle hinders or verunmöglicht. They become through it Possibilities considerably, to dissociate itself/themselves in later biographical phases from the respective group or to get out completely, impedes.(doc. 10)


3. Factors of risk, which promote aggressive and violent behavior

3. 1. But also, if we cannot dedicate ourselves here the last-finite motives and " abysses " of human aggression and Destruktivitaet, then nevertheless factors of risk are recognizable, which favour aggressive-violent with restraint.

Thus changing values suggest themselves, which the weighting of materialistic and hedonistisch hedonistisch-individualistischer values changed (viz. gene gensicke 1994). " self implementation " can become the self purpose in such a way, and thus the social component tendentiell reduce a " elbow mentality " can so further spreading find, which flows among other things into the " postfamiliale " family (Beck Gernsheim 199â, b). For children and young people thereby the feeling for continuity, security can be lost. The Ent Persoenlichung and Ent being rooted resulting from the " quite normal chaos " (Beck Gernsheim 1994b) lead at according to deficit eras conditions to I weakness (petrol, Merten, 1993, S. 157ff.), those to the disorientation and disintegration lead and thus to releasing of violent impulses (Heitmeyer 1993, S. 116f./1994; Wanting Ems 1993c, P. 105). Rootedness and sense can become with difficulty unfold-unfolding young persons, which are already from the age in an orientation and an identity identification phase, of it particularly strongly disconcerted. This constitutes the normative and emotional base that force endorsement can live it up as elbow mentality in crisis situations as quasi permitted deviation. The balance of the identity development is disturbed, because around " identity to find and (too) is called to determine in an electric field of forces the own point of view again in each case thereby the upright course protects becomes possible " (Scarbath 1992, P. 47). The balance between I and we becomes precarious. In this connection also recognizably that male identity can lead by the cancellation of manual labor and the redefinition of the sex roles to a retreat on traditional " male role pictures ", those is superelevated idealistic and fundamentalist, to the aggressive physicalness (Scherr, 1994, P. 27; viz. Otto/Merten 1993, cape V.; b&w 1/94) to lead can.

Appears problematic, if sex-roll-specific Sozialisationserfahrungen in family, kindergarten, social surrounding field and Peers is perpetuated and solidified by the school. This occurs above all, if the media confirm these adjustments and attitudes additionally (Wagner Winterhager 1990, S.17; Lukesch 1992, S.34).

3. 2. The role of the media

Childhood is under today's conditions substantially medium childhood (Aufenanger 1991, S. 11f.), since the play and motion possibilities are minimized by building and road land development particularly in the cities. Modernity and social attractiveness of the media provide for the far spreading of Walkmen, Gameboys, computer games, CD Player, video, cable and antenna TV among child/young people. Action and force dominate, since both is to be manufactured cheaply and the Sehstrukturen of this childlike/juvenile clientele apparently comes to meet. Thus spends a pupil up to 16. Lebensjahr almost the same time in the school as before the television. Daily almost two hours of TV are consumed. Much-thousandfold murder, bodily injury, toetungen are observed. Medium force becomes recognizable therein, because that a child does not see 500 murders per week (Lukesch 1992, P. 34). can reliably in the sense of the Katharsisthese (Freud) to damage from the child turn away, but nevertheless rather for imitation in the sense of the imitation learning (Bandura) leads. In the sense of the " Doppeldosis These"(Selg 1993, P. 114) imitation occurs only if they " structure " on real family force can. And " force in the media is copied if it fits the own life situation " (Eckert 1993, P. 138.) Supply and demand of the medium market can become generally accepted behind the headings of the children and adults, because none, or only small check takes place by the adults. " children know already everything, before they could experience it as young person or adults themselves: A today's child knows the whole world by the television, before it can cross alone a road ". (Textor 1990, P. 17). It appears problematic that often secondary, mediale experiences primary, social hererodynes. (doc. 12)


It is even also function of the school, the sense of behavior rules to obtain their value and its validity instead of doing without it.

The sense and the function of school to be a lehr and an institute for learning this function with it the available the means - fan differentiation, curricula, professional instructors, time table and school regulations - organized, in order to mediate to pupils life chances, cannot be under any circumstances for planning.

This function was not to be separated in the rest of ever from education and care, which also always included the promotion of personal responsibility, Initative and PersoenlichkeitsentfaItung.

The educating and education job of the school imply a so high responsibility that are demanded from the teachers one of the longest training periods and authority proofs in two state examinations and it by its office oath of a special, stricter legislation are subjected.

From this their " office force " results, they are obligated which exactly the same as the judges " in the name of the people " to handle.

Who brings this structure into the discredit of a destructive imposed system, as it is done via the reproach of the structural force, must for his part the reproach leave itself fallen to undermine the school by smearing the difference between more constructional, order and right of protecting institutional authority and destructive force of right crushers and order opponents and placing thus first with the latter on a level. (doc. 14)


Punishment has however not only an effect on the individual, but always also on the community, concerned by it, before whose eyes it is carried out. This effect is in each case just as importantly, also when being missing the expected effect on the punished one, which can in all other respects adjust with the due delay and more unspektakulaer, particularly since on the fact it is to be counted that some punished one tries to cushion its image loss by demonstrative Ungebuehrtheit.

All necessary and unavoidable punishments have like the other force and influence rights delegated to the authority the sense, liberty, to prove peace, to guarantee justice and humanity in the community/company the validity of these values in situations their questioning by a rule violator.

About the negative learning effect by models, which violate unpunished rules, some was already said. It is probably particularly the necessity following from this insight to the punishment, which is meant, if from a " deterrent effect " the speech is.

A society, whose authority organs are generous and reserved opposite their citizens, shows strength.

A society, which gives away generously its right goods at offenders, criminal terror in relation to with weakness reacted, their honest citizens thereby chicanery and tyranny delivers, is ill.

The punishment is the reaction to offenses, decided by the society in the interest of their receipt, from which each member of this society knows, which can expect it, if a criminal offence were committed, and which the author must expect.

A society, which gives this principle up, delivers its citizens of the defenselessness, because their defense are the laws and their fulfilment, or them drive them to the self law.

Appropriate applies to the school, which has to before-live and obtain the even Rechtsstaatlichkeitsprinzip as subrange of the society.

Both the already space of the legal punishing minority for children and young people and the free space for sample behavior by the childhood status, necessary for learning and development, are printout of the reasonable sympathetic consideration of a liberal society for their new generation. (doc. 14)


Rather, the gaze shall end on omissions in her/it - and Advanced training of the pedagogues as well as on deficits in the political culture is steered. Should clearly become at the same time: Pedagogic action can insulate only little causes, as Component of whole corporation-like efforts against right-wing extremism is pedagogic, To replace work however only heavily. Such whole corporation-like efforts should above all following levels include 2:

ôkonomisch-soziale level It of the reduction needs in order to repress the social fertile soil for right-wing extremism social dissimilarities and the cut of the contrasts between arm and empire. Especially under the conditions of one media -, consumption -, Leistungs - and Children and teenagers guess competition-society, that her/its/their social and personnel Identity first must develop, quickly at the edge of the society. Is therefore for Teenager the existence of real odd for appropriate life-perspectives, especially a completed occupational training and a successful transition in him/it Occupation vital. Corresponding demands leave themselves at them/her/it from this economic - and Labor market-politics as well as the social -, families - and education policy derives.

Political level Here, it is essential to put the formation-ability of the politics under proof in particular and one Ethnisierung of social problem-situations for example through a transparent immigration politics, to counteract. (doc. 15)


The scholastic possibilities lie in the preventive as a matter of priority Area, in that the social, democratic and Interkulturellen Lernen in the school-everyday life proper attention is given. Leaves itself for the scholastic so Präventionsarbeit above all following instruction – and school-specific preventive Action-concepts recognize:

Erfahrungslernen in a democratic school-culture: Through the inclusion of that Students into the formation of school and instruction learn children and teenagers, , To take on responsibility, to watch other opinions, to close compromises, and, to find non-violent conflict-solutions. Also particular programs are used for it to the social learning or to the dispute-conciliation.

Patronage political and ethical judgment-ability and action-area of authority: Political Educational - and enlightenment-work still remains one of the main tasks of the school. This may not exhaust itself in instructions however, rather school itself must to the democratic political action stimulate in the school and in their surroundings.(doc. 15)

Importancia de la mediación en la gestión del conflicto

Manuals for the education work and school :

Baisch, Volker among other things: Civil courage. Guidance for creative handling conflicts.Cathedral 1995.

Beck, Detlev / Barabara Mueller / Uwe Painke: One can nevertheless which do! Force-free neighbourhood assistance. Creative intervention in force situations and joint prevention of other-hostile practicing grasps. Minden 1994 (reference: Federation for social defense, p.o. box 2110, 32378 Minden).

Besemer, Christoph: Mediation. Switching in conflicts. Bathe 1993.

Ders.: Mediation in practice. Experiences from the USA Freiburg 1996.

Blum, Heike / Gudrun smock: Training for force-free intervention against racingism and right-wing extremist force. A method collection and a suggestion for discussion. Cologne 1994 (reference: Grass root workshop, Scharnhorststr. 6, 50733 Cologne, Tel.: 0221 / 765842).

Ebert, Theodor: Civilian peace service. Alternative one to the military. Basic training in force-free concerning. Cathedral 1997.

Ders.: Grundausbilung in force-free conflict delivering. In: William Kempf (Hrsg.): Force-free conflict resolutions. Interdisciplinary contributions to theory and practice of peaceful conflict handling. Heidelberg 1993, P. 97-121.

Faller, Kurt: Mediation in the educational work. A manual for kindergarten, school and youth work. Muelheim at the Ruhr 1998.

Ders. among other things: Conflicts solve. Training manual for Mediation and conflict management in school and youth work. Muelheim at the Ruhr 1996.

Fountain, Susan: Life in a world. Suggestions for global learning. Braunschweig 1996 (in it: Conflicts and conflict resolutions).

Glasl, Friedrich: Conflict management. A manual for high-level personnel and advisors. Stuttgart 1992 (3rd Aufl.)

Gugel, Guenther: We do not become yield. Experiences with force liberty. A practice-oriented introduction. Tübingen 1997.

Hagedorn, Ortrud: Conflict pilot. Faechervebindendes training aid. Stuttgart Duesseldorf Berlin Leipzig 1994 (Klett publishing house).

Internationally Peace Research Association (IPRA) / UNESCO: Handbook resource and Teaching material in Conflict resolution, Education for human Rights, Peace and Democracy. Paris 1994 (manuscript).

Jefferys, Karin / Ute Noack: mediate to controversies, solve. The pupil controversy mediator program for the classes 5 to 10. Lichtenau 1995.

Luense, Dieter / Joerg Rohwedder / Volker Baisch: Civil courage. Guidance for creative handling conflicts. Cathedral 1995.

Landesinstitut for school and further training Soest (Hrsg.): Arbitration of arguments: Pupils and pupils transfer responsibility for conflict resolutions in the school. Begleitmaterial to the film " arbitration of arguments ". Soest 1996.

Prutzmann, Priscilla among other things: The friendly classroom. Gewaltlsoe conflict resolution in the school everyday life. Kassel 1996.

Singer, Kurt: Teacher pupil conflicts force-free regulate. Weinheim 1988.

Singer, Kurt: Civil courage dare. As one learns to interfere. Munich 1992.

Unicef: Education for Conflict resolution: A training manual. 1996 (manuscript)

Training for the peace - IPT. Peace forum, July 1996.

Walker, Jamie: Constructional conflict handling in the classroom. Becoming acquainted with and loosening. Berlin 1992.

This: Constructional conflict handling in the classroom. Promotion of the self value feeling. Berlin 1992.

This: Force suitor handling conflicts in the primary school / force suitor handling conflicts in the secondary school Ith Frankfurt / Main 1995.(doc. 6)


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