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Regional Conference on Migration

 

 

67

2. Ibero-American Multilateral Agreement on Social Security 

Francis Zúñiga González 

A. Introduction 

The reality of migrant workers in many countries is generally precarious from the labor stand point 

and that of the rights provided by Social Security. The importance of the Multilateral Ibero-American 

Convention on Social Security lays in the benefits that, either directly or indirectly, it offers the above 

mentioned group in matters of Social Security. Aside from this, it strives to become the international 

legal means with the broadest effect in Ibero-America with respect to its subject matter.  

It is necessary to realize that one of the many problems affecting migrants is the possible loss 

of their social rights. In the case of Social Security, due to the diversity of models, the lack of 

coordination between national systems, and the demand for contributions within a small window of 

opportunity in order to generate contributive rights. Within the Ibero-american Community, it is 

mainly complicated due to the differing systems for retirement, as well as the requirements needed to 

receive compensations and benefits, financial regulations, and the procedures involved. 

The Convention will benefit millions of migrants in the heart of the Ibero-American 

countries, guaranteeing their Social Security rights and those of their families. It will also serve as the 

judicial basis for community rights, which will in turn lead towards the consolidation of a sense of 

belonging, of being a member of the Ibero-American Community. 

From the judicial stand point, the importance of this Convention rests on the possibility of 

turning towards it for the solution of specific cases within the internal legislations of each country, as 

has happened with other Conventions, in matters such as long term compensations for eventual 

disability, old age, and death benefit payment.  

This document will analyze the background of the Convention and will then look into the 

definition of the scope of action, subjective and material, and other elements worth considering.  

B. Background 

The Multilateral Ibero-American Convention on Social Security, hereon referred to as “the 

Convention”, has as immediate precedent the Ibero-American Summits of the Chiefs of State and 

Government. It is important to indicate that the political mandates and agreements that have stemmed 

from the above mentioned summits have constituted the starting point for international regulation on 

Social Security, which is to be included in the processes of regional integration in Ibero-America.  

The maintenance and consolidation of the acquired rights, or those on the verge of being 

acquired, of migrant workers has constituted a constant concern for the different countries that make 

up the Ibero-American Community, as was expressly gathered at the III Ministerial Conference that 

took place in Valencia, Spain in 2002. In its “Declaration of Social Security and Social Protection of 

Migrant Workers in Ibero-America”, the need for “strengthening international solidarity in the field 

of Social Security geared towards the integration and the protection of migrant workers and at the 

promotion of development and economic exchange between the Ibero-American States, through the 

encouragement of bilateral and multilateral Conventions…” was indicated.  This objective is 

reiterated in the “Final Communiqué” of the IV Conference (Alicante 2003) which mentions 

“guaranteeing the computation of fees and the portability of the rights in the ever more frequent 

theoretical labor market mobility”

One could consider the Conference of Ministers/High Authorities responsible for the Social 

Security of the Ibero-American countries, that took place in Segovia (Spain), on the 8th and 9th of 

September of 2005, the definitive starting point of the Convention. In this Conference the 



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